What is Chromium?

We take a look at Google's open-source coding project, and the platforms it has inspired

Code

Google Chrome is the most used web browser in the world, having grown from an upstart introduced into the browser arena in 2008, to a must-have app for pretty much anyone setting up a new PC. But Chrome brought with it more than just a slick web browser; when it launched Chromium came with it. 

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While Chromium underpins Chrome, its exists as open-source code maintained by the Chromium Project, which provides the code and documentation to support developers who wish to use the open-source code to build their own apps and tools on top of it. 

Chromium is more interesting still, given it exists as its own browser but also serves as the code bedrock of Chrome OS, Google's in-house operating system for Chromebooks. Both Chrome and Chromium can even be run on the same machine, much like you can run multiple versions of Chrome, such as its developer and beta versions, on the same computer. 

Furthermore, as it's open-source code, developers are encouraged to add to the Chromium source code, thus expanding its potential to be used in other software projects and creations. 

What is Chromium?

Chromium is an open-source coding project launched by Google in 2008 alongside what would become the world's most popular browser, Google Chrome. The source code generated by Chromium is used as the building blocks for Chrome in order for it to work, although this code works alongside other components.

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However, the Chrome browser we know and love also uses other proprietary code, such as Adobe Flash Player (although this is being phased out) and digital rights management (DRM) components that let Chrome play copyrighted content.

Chromium is, in fact, a browser in its own right, but only uses the base open-source code, so is far less developed as a result. It was originally designed to be a project where developers could download the development code and make adjustments to it.

The open-source coding project consists of accomplished developers that are invited to contribute to the project, taking the existing code for the products and making it even better. Those chosen by the project's leaders are encouraged to build code into a "safe, faster, more secure computing experience", reads the Chromium website.

How is Chromium different to Chrome?

Some of the biggest differences between Chrome and Chromium centre on the quality of the build and how updates are managed. While the Chrome browser is refined and strives to be bug-free, Chromium is rough around the edges and lacking in features. It's also fully open-source, as opposed to the Chrome browser.

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Updates, meanwhile, aren't issued to Chromium automatically, and it's highly unstable in nature and therefore prone to crashes. The fact that it's "tremendously buggy" is even written in the description on its download page. Moreover, glitches are hard to flag than bugs in Chrome, with the flagship web browser featuring a mechanism by which users can file reports for engineers to analyse.

Meanwhile there are are a number of popular video codecs that aren't supported in Chromium, like the H.264 used by Netflix, for example. Chromium generally offers a vastly-reduced user experience compared with Chrome and other popular web browsers, and most video streaming services are inoperable.

Perhaps, the easiest way to explain the differences between Chromium and Chrome, is that Chrome has everything Chromium has to offer but Chromium doesn't have access to all the features Google has equipped Chrome with. 

What is Chromium used for?

Given Chromium's open-source nature, combined with the expertise behind the new code and it's not shocking to know that the code has been used by other browsers due to its innovation and fundamental quality.

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The project benefits from having some of the best developers across the globe working on it - only developers approved by Google can actually make changes to the official Chromium code. Hobbyists can download and manipulate their own version but not Chromium itself.

These projects include:

Opera

It has been around for decades now and has pioneered features such as tabbed browsing and private browsing. It also sports a free VPN service built into the browser and a turbo mode which compresses web pages, making them load up to 50% faster. Opera decided to drop its Presto engine in 2013 in favour of Blink, the engine built with Chromium, which is also used to run Chrome.

The former Norwegian search engine, now owned by a Chinese collective, has the largest user share of any non-Google, chromium-based browser with 1.6% in early 2018, according to Net Applications.

Vivaldi

Vivaldi is another browser that has gained popularity since its inception in 2016, built largely by former Opera engineers. The browser was conceived by Opera's former CEO who was unhappy with the direction the company was taking.

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The Chromium-based browser offers a plethora of features such as a breakout panel, which allows users to have two sites open in one tab, the ability to annotate web pages and also tab hibernation, which frees resources used by inactive tabs. Given that it's Chromium-based, all apps on the Chrome Web Store can also be installed on Vivaldi.

Brave

While somewhat niche, the Brave browser is a privacy-first platform that boasts some pretty nifty features. Created by the co-founders of the Mozilla project, Brave blocks adverts and trackers by default, as well as phishing, malware and risky plugins. Brave claims to load desktop web pages 2x faster than competitors and 8x faster on mobile too.

Microsoft Edge

Microsoft recently announced that it too will start adopting Chromium as the engine that powers its Edge browser, originally released some three years ago. Microsoft chose to adopt the engine's code to keep up with new web technologies, increasing its compatibility. As a result of the open-source shift, we'll soon see a Microsoft browser on MacOS for the first time.

Is Chromium safe?

Among the key considerations when choosing which browser to use is safety and security, defences against privacy intrusion and malware infection. With risks heightened in the current landscape, it's important to consider whether an internet browser can offer things like password storage and anti-tracking.

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Where Chrome is regularly updated by its developers, Chromium lacks any auto-update mechanisms which means users must be constantly aware of the latest security updates as and when they become available. These essential patches won't be applied to Chromium builds when they become available unless users manually check for them, and it could lead more casual users at higher risk of attack.

Meanwhile, a host of open source versions of Chromium may be infected with malware or hidden lines of attack code, which means devices on which these are installed will be left vulnerable to being targeted by cyber criminals. The safest bet for both simple and advanced users is to acquire Chromium directly from Google and be aware of third-party links.

There are regular patches, however, that address various security concerns in Chromium, but these, as already mentioned, must be applied manually. "We are committed to promptly addressing all security issues, and delivering fixes to our users via our fast automatic update process," said Chromium's Core Principles of security. "This approach has allowed us to maintain an industry-leading response time to security vulnerabilities."

Who is using Chromium?

Those who are crazy for all things open source will appreciate Chromium - being at the forefront of the development of the code which feeds the world's most pervasive browser engine is a cool thing to experience for enthusiasts.

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Given that Chromium is somewhat detached from Google, it collects and shares far less data with its parent than the Chrome browser. Although many value the privacy this affords, Chromium does send some data to Google as part of its feature set, such as search suggestions based on history.

How to download Chromium browser

If you're interested in trying out Chromium, it's essential you download the safest version.

Downloading Chromium isn't as intimidating as its open-source nature sounds. Just like a regular browser, it has a download page which should automatically recognise which system you're running, providing the appropriate version for you.

The web page will also issue you with the build revision number and a warning about how buggy the build could be.

What are the alternatives to Chrome?

If it's brand new features you want, without all the hassle of dealing with manual updates and poor web compatibility, then Google's Canary build may be a better fit for you.

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Google's Canary is the least stable of the Chrome builds, of which there are 4: Chrome, Beta, Dev and Canary. Canary benefits from compatibility features which aren't found on Chromium, such as Flash, PDF reader and multimedia codecs.

Canary will feel more like Chrome, only fitted with some cutting edge features that have yet to be fully tested by Google's engineers. It's so unstable it won't even let itself become your default browser. It's intended for those that want to see what Chrome could look like weeks or months down the line. You can download it here.

Chromium vs. Chrome: the final verdict

So, the final question: Chromium or Chrome? Two very different browsers for two very different markets. There are pros and cons to both browsers so whether it's a deep love of coding or just simple curiosity, let this persuade or dissuade you from jumping into the Chromium project.

Chromium is a fascinating project, one that's become so well regarded that many developers jump at the chance to shape the technology that's become so prevalent across technology today. As a mass collaboration of ideas on a hugely impactful project, Chromium really sets the bar high for community engagement.

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