Raspberry Pi 3 Model B review
The latest version of the compact computer adds more power and built-in wireless connectivity
The Raspberry Pi Foundation has made a habit out of doing the impossible. When it launched its first single-board computers, people were flabbergasted at their miniscule size. Since then, however, creator Eben Upton and his colleagues have continued to pack the Pi with hardware upgrades and additional features.
The latest iteration, the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, is the most powerful Pi yet. This is thanks to a new 64-bit quad-core ARMv8 processor, with its four ARM Cortex-A53 cores clocked at 1.3Ghz.
It's also added two of fans' most-requested features, in the form of integrated 802.11n Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth 4.1 and Bluetooth Low Energy support. This means that users will no longer need to connect external adapters to access these functions, freeing up precious USB ports for other peripherals.
While the Pi 3 is still remarkably power efficient, running off a 5v micro USB connection with a maximum power draw of 2.5A, the extra hardware means that, for embedded systems, the Raspberry Pi Foundation still recommend the Pi Zero and Pi 1 A+ if you need to keep power consumption to a minimum, as both have a lower power draw.
For the first time, the Pi has an integrated 802.11n Wi-Fi adaptor
The Pi 3 has been designed to be as close to previous generations as possible. Not only does this mean that most cases and mountings will still fit the Pi 3, it also ensures any projects designed for previous Raspberry Pi Model B versions will still work as normal, as all ports and connectors have made the jump intact.
Like its predecessors, it has four USB2 ports, a full-sized HDMI port, a 10/100 Ethernet port, a combined 3.5mm audio/composite video out port and a MicroSD card slot. The Broadcom VideoCore IV graphics chipset from the Pi 2 also remains the same and the Pi 3 has 1GB of RAM.
The Pi 3 also has the usual 40-pin General Purpose Input/Output connector, which lets you use it to control a wealth of external devices and electronic components. There are also both camera and display connectors, which securely hook onto ribbon connectors from compatible devices.
As ever, the Pi 3's price is aggressively low, at 27 ex VAT and dropping even lower if you order in bulk.
26/05/2016: Google is bringing Android support to the Raspberry Pi 3, with a new device tree appearing in the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) repository.
The folder - labelled "initial empty repository" is currently empty, but will soon presumably fill up with code.
This is notable because non-Google devices don't usually exist in the AOSP, reports arstechnica, but now programmers will easily be able to use Android on their new Raspberry Pi.
This also includes access to more than 1.5 million apps, touch support and an SDK.
Some developers booted Android Marshmallow on Raspberry Pi devices earlier this year, reports Yahoo, but this is the first sign of official support.
Like its predecessors, the Raspberry Pi 3 supports a wide range of operating systems, including the recommend Raspbian OS and the slick Ubuntu Mate desktop distribution. It also supports Windows 10 IOT, designed for those who want to create embedded devices running Windows, and a range of specialised variant operating systems, from development distros to media centres.
As the Pi 3 hardware is still very new, not all of the operating systems popularly used with Pis are fully optimised for it yet. For example, the Ubuntu Mate team is still working on Bluetooth support, while the stable version of Windows 10 IoT dates from last November and is only designed for Pi 2 hardware, rather than the new Pi 3. A preview build from February - 14262 - is available on the Windows Insider programme, however, and provides support for the Pi 3 for users developing with Microsoft's Visual Studio. Unfortunately, it didn't recognise the Pi 3's integrated wireless chipset during our tests.
While we prefer manually downloading and creating SD card images of the individual operating systems we need, the addition of an integrated Wi-Fi chipset instantly makes things a little quicker and easier when using the standard Raspberry Pi NOOBS OS installer. Plus, it spares you the need to either buy a USB wireless adapter or run extra network cables around the place.
We found that we had to do a bit of extra tweaking of the Pi's config.txt settings before audio over HDMI and full resolution video worked properly on our ageing 1080p test display. As always, compatibility and support for the Pi's auto-detection vary from display to display, and can also be affected by other hardware you may wish to use, such as AV receivers or KVM switches. Fortunately, it's relatively easy to set up the Pi 3 to always use your preferred display and audio settings.
Like its siblings, the Raspberry Pi 3 doesn't have a BIOS, but instead loads its system configuration information from /boot/config.txt, where you can not only set display properties, but also memory handling, enable camera support (assuming you have one connected to the Pi's camera port) and even overclock the CPU. Many of these features can also be configured from within Raspbian - but not other operating system distros - using the raspi-conf utility. These boot settings are also handy if you don't want to have to always turn on your display before the computer boots to ensure that it auto-detects the correct resolution.
The Pi 3's processor upgrade instantly puts it in a different class to any previous models in the range when it comes to performance. When we ran our usual Blowfish hashing benchmark under Raspbian, we got a score of 40.9, making its test performance around 25% faster than the Raspberry Pi 2 Model B, which scored 62.19 in the same test, while the original Raspberry Pi B+ managed just 99.64 -- lower scores are better. As ever, bear in mind that single-board computers of this kind are far slower than typical modern desktop PCs, which will typically score well under 10 in the same hashing test.
The Pi 3's processor upgrade instantly puts it in a different class to any previous models
That's an impressive upgrade but just as importantly, the quad-core 1.2Ghz ARMv8 processor means that that Pi 3 provides a much smoother desktop experience, even if you have multiple browser windows open. It's still not ideal for heavy-duty multitasking, but we were able to open multiple browser tabs, edit documents and play media without any significant lag or slow-down.
We saw the best results in Rasbian Wheezy, which performed smoothly running everything from slide presentations in LibreOffice Impress, streaming high definition video, and playing games such as Minecraft. Core tasks such as using software development tools and controlling external electronic devices via the GPIO pins remain as smooth ever, while the increased processor power means that you'll have less time to wait while your code compiles.
Ubuntu Mate, which is currently less perfectly optimised for the hardware than Raspbian, nonetheless put in a strong performance, with only multiple active Firefox tabs contributing much noticeable slowdown in performance when it came to standard desktop tasks. We slightly prefer its interface to Raspian's and, although Ubuntu is based on Debian, it's often more widely supported by developers and third-party publishers, giving you a slightly broader range of conveniently pre-packaged software to choose from and install.
The Raspberry Pi has always been a fascinating tool for learning more about how computers function, getting to grips with Linux and controlling hardware devices. For electronics projects, most embedded systems and learning the basics of programming, the Pi 3 doesn't have any particularly great advantages over the cheaper and more power-efficient models that already exist. The ultra-compact 5 Pi Zero is our pick for embedded projects unless you specifically need a feature such as the Pi 3's integrated Bluetooth adaptor.
However, the upgrade to its processor and the addition of integrated Wi-Fi and Bluetooth make this latest version of the Raspberry Pi far more useful when it comes to traditional computing tasks. Whether you want to use it for network monitoring, building a pocket computer that you can use on the road (assuming you don't mind travelling with a wireless keyboard/touchpad set and an HDMI cable), emulating old software or building a tiny secure Linux box, this is the most capable Pi yet.
Older Pis are still better for embedded systems and others projects where the lowest possible power consumption is paramount, but for other uses, especially as a Windows desktop PC replacement, the Pi 3 is a cracking upgrade
CPU: 1.2Ghz Broadcom BCM2837 quad-core ARMv8 processor
Memory: 1GB RAM
Ports and connections: 10/100 Ethernet, combined 3.5mm audio/composite video out port, 4x USB2 ports, HDMI output, 2.4GHz 802.11n Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 4.1, Micro SD card slot, CSI camera port, DSI display port
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